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Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy

Majalah Farmasi Indonesia (MFI) Volume 8 (1997), Number: 4

Article 1. (number of pages: 7; original language: indonesian)

DIFUSI ASTEMIZOL MELEWATI MEMBRAN ISOPROPIL MIRISTAT

ASTEMIZOLE DIFFUSION THROUGH ISOPROPYL MYRISTATE MEMBRANE

Esti Hendradi * dan Suwaldi Martodihardjo ** (* Fakultas Farmasi UNAIR, ** Fakultas Farmasi UGM)

ABSTRAK

Astemizol adalah antihistamina H1 yang poten dan mengalami metabolisme ekstensif di dalam hati. Salah satu alternatif untuk menghindari metabolisme itu adalah astemizol digunakan secara transdermal. Penghalang utama obat melewati kulit adalah stratum korneum yang sering disimulasikan dengan membran Millipore yang diimpregnasi dengan isopropil miristat. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui difusi astemizol melewati membran yang merupakan simulasi kulit, dibuat dengan cara Millipore diimpregnasi dengan isopropil miristat. Media penerima yang digunakan adalah larutan dapar fosfat pH 6,0 dengan konsentrasi 0,01 M. Percobaan difusi dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat difusi model Goldberg dan Higuchi yang dimodifikasi pada suhu 30°C, 37°C, dan 45°C. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa difusi astemizol melewati membran yang diimpregnasi dengan isopropil miristat mengikuti kinetika orde nol dengan energi penghalang adalah sebesar 6.251 kal/mol. Interaksi yang terjadi antara membran dengan astemizol berlangsung secara spontan. Berdasarkan harga entalpi ikatan yang terjadi terutama karena ikatan hidrogen, sedangkan harga entropi memberikan indikasi bahwa sistem menjadi lebih acak.

Kata kunci: Astemizol, difusi , membran impregnasi isopropil miristat

ABSTRACT

Astemizole is a potent H1 antihistamine and undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver. Transdermal delivery is one of the alternatives which could be used to overcome the metabolism. Stratum corneum exerts main barrier to the transdermal delivery and isopropyl myristate-impregnated Millipore membrane often be used to simulate the stratum corneum. The objective of this study was to examine the diffusion of astemizole through simulated-skin membrane which was prepared by impregnating Millipore membrane with isopropyl myristate. Receptor medium used was phosphate buffer solution of pH 6.0 and 0.01 M. The experiments were carried out by using modified diffusion cell model of Goldberg and Higuchi at temperatures of 30°C, 37°C, and 45°C. Results showed that astemizole diffusion through the membrane to follow zero-order kinetics with barrier energy of 6,251 cal/mole. Interactions between membrane and the drug was spontaneous. Based on the enthalpy value, the interactions were dominated by hydrogen bonding, meanwhile the entropy value indicates that the randomness of the system was increased.

Key words: Astemizole, diffusion, isopropyl myristate-impregnated membrane

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Article 2. (number of pages: 10; original language: indonesian)

BIOAKUMULASI PESTISIDA ORGANOKLORIN DALAM IKAN BELANAK (Mugil sp.) DI PERAIRAN CILACAP

BIOACUMLATION OF ORGANOCHLORONES PESTISIDES IN BELANAK (Mugil sp.) AT CILACAP WATERS

Srimumpuni R. dan Sri Noegrohati (Bag. Kimia Farmasi, Fak. Farmasi UGM)

ABSTRAK

Pestisida organoklorin adalah senyawa sintetitik yang mempunyai aktivitas spektrum sangat luas, bersifat apolar dan persisten. Sifat tersebut menyebabkan penggunaan pestisida, menimbulkan banyak masalah kesehatan dan lingkungan. Terjadinya cemaran pada ikan dapat digunakan sebagai indikator bioakumulasi yang terjadi dalam air. Cemaran dapat ditemukan baik di perairan, udara dan tanah. Penelitian kadar organoklorin dalam ikan belanak ( Mugil sp,) dari perairan daerah Cilacap untuk mempelajari kadar bioakumulasi cemaran organoklorin yang terdapat di organnya. Sampling air dan ikan dilakukan di Sungai Donan, Segara Anakan, dan Selat Nusokambangan. Organoklorin disari dari sampel dan dilakukan clean up, dianalisis dengan kromatografi gas menggunakan detektor ECD. Sebagaian sampel air juga dianalisis sifat fisika dan kimianya untuk mengetahui habitat ikan belanak. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa harga faktor bioakumulasi (BAF) dari beberapa organoklorin berkisar antara 102 sampai 105 Kata Kunci: Pestisida organoklorin, persistent dan faktor bioakumulasi

ABSTRACT

Organochlorines pesticides are broad spectrum synthetic compounds, polar, and persistent causing a lot of problem on health and environment. The pollution effect of persistent pesticides is accumulated on biologic system in waters, air and lands. The concentration of those pesticides in fishes depend on the concentration level in environment. Therefore fish could be used as an indicator of organochlorines, and other pollutants bioaccumulation in water. The aim of this investigation is to study the level of organochlorines in water of Cilacap regional by measuring organochlorine residues founded in some tissues of Mugil sp. Samples of water and Mugil sp, were taken from Donan river, Segara Anakan and Nusakambangan straits. The organochlorines ware then extracted from the samples, and clean up, analyzed using Gas Liquid Chromatography, with ECD detector. In order to understand the habitat of Mugil sp., it was necessary to analyzed the chemical and physical value of water where the coresponding fish live. The result shown that the value of Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) of some organochlorines detected were 102 until 105

Key Words: Organochlorines pesticide, persistent and bioaccumulation factor

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Article 3. (number of pages: 11; original language: indonesian)

AKTIVITAS LARVASIDA MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN JUKUT Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit, TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti, INSTAR IV DAN ANALISIS KROMATOGRAFI GAS-SPEKTROSKOPI MASSA

LARVASIDE ACTIVITY OF JUKUT ESSENSIAL OIL Hyptis suaveolens (L) POIT LEAVES TOWARD INSTAR IV OF Aedes aegypti LARVAE AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS

Noegroho, S.P*, Srimulyani* dan Mulyaningsih, B**   (*Bag. Biologi Farmasi, Fak. Farmasi UGM. **Bag. Parasitiologi FK UGM)

ABSTRAK

Tumbuhan Jukut (Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit) termasuk suku Labiatae yang mengandung monoterpen dan sekuiterpen, digunakan oleh masyarakat untuk ramuan obat tradiosinal, seperti penolak serangga, anti spasmodik, dan anti rematik. Penelitian ini untuk mengatahui sifat larvasida sari minyak atziri daun jukut terhadap larva Aedes aegypti dan menganalisis senyawa tersebut dengan kromatografi gas spektroskopi-massa (GC-MS). Minyak atsiri yang diperoleh dengan penyulingan air dan uap air, dipekatkan, kemudian diuji aktivitas larvasidanya terhadap Aedes aegypti instar IV dengan pembanding Abate. Minyak atsiri yang diperoleh diuji sifat indeks bias, kelarutan, dan kromatografi gas-spektro massa. Percobaan larvasida ditemukan LC50 dan LC90 minyak = 393,69 ppm dan 1145,92 ppm, sebaliknya abate hanya mempunyai harga 0,05 dan 0,21 ppm. Analisis komponen dengan gas kromatografi-Spektrokopi -Massa diperoleh 16 puncak kromatogram, dan 8 puncak yang teridentifikasi bila dibandingkan dengan National Institute of Standard Technology (NIST). Senyawa tersebut adalah; 3-karen, bisiklo-3,1,1 heksan, beta-pinen, alfa-felandren, gama-terpinen, 3-sikloheksan-1-ol, beta-kariofilen dan alfa-kariofilen.

Kata kunci: Jukut ( Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit), komponen minyak atsiri dan larvasida.

ABSTRACT

Jukut (Hyptis suaveolens (L), Poit) is a heap of Labiatae family. It has been known as a component of tradional medicine and has activity as insect-repellent, anti spasmodic and anti rheumatic. The chemical content of this plant known as essential oil consisting of monoterpene and sesquiterpene. The study on the essential oil extract of Hyptis suaveolens L Poit is to investigate the larvaside activity towards Aedes aegypti larvae. Furthermore the structure of some compounds found in essential oil were analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The fresh leaves of Hyptis suaveolens (L), Poit was extracted by petroleum ether, or ethanol using Soxhlet, and steam distillation. The essential oil was applied toward Aedes aegypti larvae Instar IV to study the larvacide activity using abate as a standard. The physical properties of the essential oil, such as refraction index, solubility, were also identified. The Limit Concentration (LC)50 and LC90 of the oil were 393,69 ppm and 1145,92 ppm respectively, whereas the abate was only 0,050 ppm and 0,21 ppm respectively. The results of essential oil analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was found 16 compounds. However, if the data was compared to that of National Institute of Standard Technology (NIST) the eight compounds could be identified. Those compounds were bicycle 3,1,1-hexene; beta pinen, alfa-phellandrene, gamma-terpeninen, 3-cyclo-hexane-1-ol; beta-caryophyllene and alfa-caryophyllene.

Key Words: Jukut (Hyptis suaveolens (L), Poit , essential oil and larvaside

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Article 4. (number of pages: 9; original language: indonesian)

DAYA REDUKSI KURKUMIN DAN TURUNANNYA (4-ALKIL-KURKUMIN) TERHADAP ION FERRI YANG DIUJI DENGAN METODE ORHO-FENANTROLIN KOMPLEKS

THE REDUCTION ABILITY OF CURCUMIN AND ITS DERIVATIVE (4-ALKYL-CURCUMIN) TOWARD FERRI ION AND ASSYED USING ORTHO-FENANTHROLIN COMPLEX

Wuryantoko, T. dan Supardjan AM.   (Bagian Kimia Farmasi, Fak. Farmasi UGM)

ABSTRAK

Kurkumin yang mempunyai gugus atom C 4, diapit oleh gugus karbonil, menurut Tonnesemn dan Greenhill, mempunyai sifat reduktor. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kemampuan sifat reduktor kurkumin dan turunannya (4-alkil-kurkumin) terhadap ion ferri, yang diuji dengan orto-fenantrolin kompleks. Substitusi pada atom C-4, dengan gugus alkil mempunyai sifat sebagai pendorong elektron akan merubah daya reduksi kurkumin. Larutan kurkumin ditambah larutan dalam air atau metanol ferriklorida dan larutan o-fenatrolin sebanyak 4.10-4M dicampur dan diencerkan sampai tertemtu. Percobaan lain dengan campuran yang sama ditambah larutan EDTA sebagai pengomplek untuk kontrol dan setelah 3 jam besarnya serapan dibaca pada 510 nm. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan reduksi kurkumin dan derivatnya mempunyai urutan sebagai berikut; 4-metil-kurkumin > 4-benzil-kurkumin > 4-isopropil-kurkumin > kurkumin > 1,7-difenil,(1,6-heptadien 3,5-dion) atau kurkumin taktersubsitusi. Dari data yang diperoleh ternyata efek sterik gugus pensubstitusi atom C-4, lebih dominan pengaruhnya dari pada sifat pendorong elektron. Substitusi metil sifat pendorongnya paling lemah dan sifat striknya terkecil, tetapi sifat reduksinya terbesar dibanding turunan kurkumin yang diuji. Hilangnya gugus metoksi dan gugus hidroksi pada cincin aromatis menurunkan daya reduksi terhadap ion ferri.

Kata kunci: Turunan kurkumin, daya reduksi, gugus sterik alkil

ABSTRACT

Reductivity of curcumin due to the presence of two carbonyl groups flanking by carbon atom (C4). This study was to investigate the reduction ability of curcumin derivatives substituted with alkyl on C-4. The cucurmin and its derivatives solution in water or methanol was combined with ferri chloride solution, and o-fenanthroline solution. The mixture of curcumin and its derivatives solution and ferri chloride solution, was added with ethylen diamine solution and was then added o-fenantholin solution. After this mixture was withstand for three hours, eventually was assayed spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The result shown that the reduction ability of curcumin derivatives were as follows; 4-metil-curcumin > 4-benzil-curcumin > 4-isopropil-curcumin > kurkumin > unsubstitueted curcumin. Therefore that 4-methyl curcumin more easily released the electron and reduced the ferri ion. It was suggested that the steric hinderence of alkyl substitution influenced the reduction ability, and the more bulky the substituent of alkyl would decrease the reduction ability. The unsubstituted curcumin reduced ability to ferri ion. Key Words: Curcumin derivatives, reduction ability, and steric hinderence of alkyl.

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Article 5. (number of pages: 8; original language: indonesian)

PERANAN MIKROBA DALAM LUMPUR AKTIF DARI LIMBAH RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP BIODEGRADASI CEMARAN LEMAK, AMILUM DAN PROTEIN

THE CONTRIBUTION OF MICROBES OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE WATER SLUDGE ON THE BIODEGRADTION OF FATS, AMYLUM AND PROTEIN

Sumarno   (Bagian Kimia Farmasi, Fakultas Farmasi UGM, Yogyakarta)

ABSTRAK

Cemaran utama yang terdapat dalam limbah rumah tangga berupa lemak, amilum dan protein, berasal dari sisa makanan keluarga sehari-hari. Cemaran tersebut akan mengalami biodegradasi oleh mikroba yang terdapat dalam lumpur aktif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peranan mikroba yang aktif melakukan biodegradasi. Mikroba diisolasi dari sludge atau lumpur aktif limbah rumah tangga dengan menggojog menggunkan asam nitrat 0,01N dan kemudian disentrifugasi, dan beningan digunakan sebagai isolat mikroba. Mikroba dibiak an pada media minimum cair (pH=8,0). mengandung agar nutrien 0,01%, susu kedele 0,01%, dan kelumit unsur logam. Isolat mikroba yang telah dibiak an ulang dengan Optical Density 0,5 digunakan sebagai sumber mikroba. Mikroba tersebut diinkubasikan selama 15 hari, dengan sampel yang telah disuci hamakan bersama medianya dalam tabung hampa udara pada suhu 37°C. Setiap 48 jam sisa biodegrasi diuji kadarnya dengan metode yang sesuai (Spektrofotometrik, kromatografi gas cair dan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa peranan mikroba pada biodegradasi asam organik dan asam lemak akan makin lambat bila rantai atom C makin panjang, tetapi keberadaan ikatan rangkap akan mempercepat biodegradasi. Kecepatan biodegaradasi terhadap beberapa polisakarida tidak dapat dibedakan, sedangkan terhadap protein terlihat perbedaan yang jelas antara kecepatan biodegradasi albumin dan kasein.

Kata kunci: Biodegradasi, lemak, protein dan polisakarida

ABSTRACT

The major pollutant found in waste water of household consist of lipid, protein and polysaccharides foods that were degraded by microbes living in sludge of waste water. The aim of this study was to investigate biodegradation rate, performed by those microbes present in the sludge. Microbes were isolated from sludge by shaking with 0.01 N nitric acid, centrifugated and the supernatant was kept as microbes isolate. These microbes were inoculated, in minimum growth liquid media,(pH 8.0) containing 0,01% nutrient agar, 0,01% soyabean milk and trace elements and was then incubated at 37°C. The microbes inoculation (OD ~ 0,5) were incubated with sterilized samples for 15 days in vacuum tubes at 37°C. The undegradable samples were assayed using suitable methods (spectrophotometric, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) every 48 hours. The result exhibited that the rate of organic acid and lipid biodegradation considerably depended on the length of carbon chain, the longer the slower. The presence of unsaturated bond increased the rate of biodegradation. The rate of variety polysaccharide biodegradation could not be distinguished, whereas the rate of casein biodegradation was significantly differ from that of albumin.

Key words: Biodegradation, lipid, protein and polysaccharide